One of the more contentious issues that left a bitter episode in the Philippine-American relation has been the Balangiga Massacre. On the morning of September 28, 1901, Valeriano Abenador and Eugenio Daza led the attack against the Company C of the 9th U.S. Infantry Regiment. On August 11, 1901, Company C arrived in Balangiga, a town on the south side of Samar Island. For the first several weeks, the relationship between the American soldiers and the townsfolk of Balangiga was cordial. But a series of events occurred leading to the armed uprising spearheaded by Abenador and Daza. When the smoke was cleared, 36 killed, 22 wounded,Read More →

On this site of Dikaloyungan in Barangay Zabali, Baler, Aurora on September 3, 1897, Filipino revolutionaries led by Teodorico Luna Novicio, Anterio Amatorio, Norberto Valenzuela, and Isabelo Palispis tore their cedulas as an act of defiance against the Spanish colonial authorities. They also signed a manifesto declaring their resistance. This event precipitated the revolution in the district of Baler. (289)Read More →

The Age of Sail has prompted European powers to expand territories beyond their realms. The Spanish and the Portuguese spearheaded these expansionist expeditions. In the course of his voyage, Ferdinand Magellan made use of the trade winds to sail westward. His expedition tragically ended in Mactan Island, part of the archipelago later named by Ruy López de Villalobos as Las Islas Filipinas. Juan Sebastián Elcano took over the Magellan expedition and completed the first circumnavigation of the world. It hastened the formal establishment the Spanish East Indies colonies comprised of Philippine Islands, Moluccas, Guam, Marianas, Carolinas, and Formosa (Taiwan). Based in Mexico, the administration ofRead More →

As I was strolling around the capitol grounds in Kalibo, I happened to see a monument with wreaths on its side. I went near and read the inscription, the monument belonged to Macario Peralta, Jr. He was born in Manila on July 30, 1913; took law at the University of the Philippines and graduated with cum laude in 1936; placed second in the bar examinations, next to Diosdado Macapagal. In 1936, Peralta joined the Philippine Commonwealth Army. He attended the Philippine Army Infantry School in 1940, finishing at the top of his class. During the Second World War, Peralta was assigned as the commander ofRead More →

The Philippine Revolution started in August 1896 when the secret society KKK (Kataástaasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan) was discovered by the Spanish colonial authorities. Although the main battlefronts were in Manila and surrounding provinces, other islands followed suit and joined in the quest to liberate the islands from the Spaniards. The Revolt of Cebu was started not by its own son but by another from a neighboring island. Born in Bacong, Negros Oriental on July 27, 1873, Pantaleon Villegas was the son of Don Policarpio Villegas and Doña Úrsula Soldi. Commissioned by General Emilio Aguinaldo, Leon Kilat organized Cebuano revolutionaries upon dispatched.Read More →

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